The Participle – причастие



The Participle –причастие

Причастие - неличная форма глагола, которая соответствует в русском языке причастию или деепричастию. Английское причастие обладает свойствами прилагательного, наречия и глагола.

1. The participles are:

    Present participles ( staying, leaving…… VERB + ING ) Past participles (stayed, left……… VERB -3rd FORM ) Perfect participles (having left…….HAVING + VERB -3rd FORM)

2. Present and past participles can be used as adjectives:

    We use the present participle to describe what somebody or something is. It answers the question : What kind? (* The film was extremely boring. – What kind of film?- Boring ) We use the past participle to describe how someone feels. It answers the question: How do you feel?

( * They were exhausted after travelling for ten hours. How did they feel? –Exhausted)

3. Participles can also be used:

§  instead of a relative pronoun and full verb (* The woman waving at me is my aunt. = The woman who is waving at me is my aunt. * The new shampoo advertised on TV is very expensive. = The new shampoo which is advertised on TV is very expensive)

§  to express reason (*Feeling shy, Laura didn’t talk to Ben.= Because she was shy……* Having seen the film before, I decided to stay at home.= Because I had seen the film before, I decided…….)

§  to express time (* After taking/ having taken his Master’s degree, he applied for a job.=After he had taken his Master’s degree, he…….* Turning the corner, we saw the hospital in front of us. = As we turned the corner we saw ……)

§  when one action happens before another action ( * Having finished breakfast, I went out for a walk.=I finished breakfast, then I went out for a walk)

§  instead of the past simple in narratives when we describe actions happening immediately one after the other (* Hearing the news, she fainted.= She heard the news and she fainted)

§  to avoid repeating the past continuous in the same sentences (* He was walking down the street whistling a tune. = He was walking down the street and he was whistling a tune)

4. Participle Forms. Формы причастия:

 

Present Indefinite

Past Indefinite

Perfect

Active

doing

________________

having done

Passive

being done

done

having been done

Действие

одновременное

одновременное

предшествующее

5. Способы перевода participle на русский язык:

Active

Present (одновременное действие)

·  переводится причастием с суффиксом

-щий, - вший reading - читающий, читавший

·  переводится деепричастием с окончанием

- а, - я reading- читая

1)   The man sitting at the window came from London yesterday.

2)   The rising sun was hidden by the clouds.

3)   The man smoking a cigarette is my brother.

4)   When going home I met my sister.

5)   Knowing English well, he translated the article without a dictionary.

6)   He sat in the armchair reading a newspaper.

Perfect ( предшествующее действие)

·  переводится деепричастием с окончанием

- в, - я having done - сделав

having come - придя

1)   Having lost Lena’s address, I was not able to write to her.

2)   Having travelled about the UK for nearly three months he returned to St. Petersburg.

3)   He left the room, having thrown the letter into the fire.

4)   Having lived in Paris for many years, he knew that city very well.

Passive

Present

(действие совершающееся в настоящий момент)

·  переводится причастием с окончанием - мый, - щийся

being discussed - обсуждаемый

being built - строящийся

The question now being discussed at the meeting is very interesting.

Past

·  переводится причастием с окончанием - мый, - нный,

- тый, - щийся, - вшийся

bought - купленный, покупаемый

discussed - обсуждаемый, обсуждающийся, обсужденный, обсуждавшийся

There are many illustrated magazines in our reading room.

Perfect

( предшествующее действие)

·  переводится придаточным предложением ((употребляется редко)

Having been sent to wrong address, the letter didn’t reach him.

 

PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTIONS

ПРИЧАСТНЫЕ ОБОРОТЫ

1.   Objective with the Participle I = Complex Object ( Объектный падеж с причастием настоящего времени = сложное дополнение)

После глаголов восприятия и ощущения to see, to hear, to watch, to notice, to feel, to listen, to observe, to look употребляется сложное дополнение (complex object) , которое представляет собой сочетание существительного ( в общем падеже) или местоимения ( в объектном падеже) с инфинитивом или причастием (participle I ). Сложное дополнение переводится на русский язык придаточным предложением, начинающимся с союзов « как» или «что».

I saw him cross the street.- Я видел, что он перешел улицу.

 

Someone did something. I saw this. ð I saw someone do something.

I saw him crossing the street. - Я видел, как он переходит улицу.

 

Someone was doing something. I saw this. ð I saw someone doing something.

Употребление причастия означает, что речь идет о действии в процессе его совершения ( когда мы начинаем смотреть или слушать, действие уже протекает, и мы наблюдаем его. Употребление инфинитива означает, что речь идет о действии как о факте, о действии в целом, чаще всего законченном.

COMPLEX OBJECT

Verb

to wish

to want

to desire

to mean

to like

to dislike

to love

to hate

to think

to know

to consider

to suppose

to believe

to expect

to find

to report

Noun

or

Pronoun

me

you

him

her

it

us

them

+INFINITIVE

( + ‘to’ or without ‘to’)

Verb

to feel

to hear

to listen

to see

to look

to notice

to observe

to watch

Noun

or

Pronoun

me

you

him

her

it

us

them

+PARTICIPLE I

( verb+ ing)

2.   Objective with the Participle II. ( Объектный падеж с причастием прошедшего времени)

Verb

to feel

to hear

to have

to see

to want

to wish

to watch

to find

Noun

or

Pronoun

me

you

him

her

it

us

them

+PARTICIPLE II

1)   You must have your hair cut. - Вы должны подстричься.

2)   с глаголами to get, to have действие совершается не самим подлежащим, а другим лицом.

I had my photo taken.-Я сфотографировался ( = меня сфотографировали)

I had (got) my hair cut yesterday. - Я вчера подстригся (= меня подстригли)

3.   Nominative with the Participle. ( Именительный падеж с причастием)

Noun (существительное в общем падеже)

или

Pronoun (местоимение в именительном падеже)

Verb ( глагол в Passive)

to see

to think

to regard

to consider

+ Participle

1)   The boys are seen playing football.- Видят, как мальчики играют в футбол.

2)   The problem was thought solved. - Думали, что проблема решена.

4.   The Absolute Participle Construction. (Независимый причастный оборот)

Noun (существительное в общем падеже)

или

Pronoun (местоимение в именительном падеже)

+ Participle

The weather being fine, we went for a walk. - Так как погода была прекрасной, мы отправились на прогулку.

GЭтот оборот переводится придаточным предложением, начинающимся словами « так как...», «если....», « когда.....» и другими.

The work done, they went home. - После того, как работа была сделана, они пошли домой.

It being very cold, we could not go skating. -Так как было очень холодно, мы не смогли пойти кататься на коньках.

PRACTICE

Test 1. Read and translate these word combinations. Read and translate the sentences below.

a burning house, falling leaves, boiling vegetables, smiling faces, singing people, shining eyes, a barking dog, the rising sun, a dying tree, the falling snow, a burnt house, fallen leaves, boiled vegetables, packed things, a broken cup, cut out pictures, a lost key

1)   There is a lot of work waiting for me to do.

2)   The cup broken by the boy was his mother’s.

3)   The key lost in the darkness wasn’t mine.

4)   There were birds flying high up in the sky, there was a white ship slowly disappearing in the open sea.

5)   There is a cloud of smoke rising into the air.

6)   Who is that man sitting by the window?

7)   Which of the boys playing in the garden is your brother?

8)   The things packed for the trip were all winter things.

9)   The fruit dried in summer will be eaten in winter.

10) Pictures cut out from old magazines covered the walls.

11) Yesterday the professor told us about the experiments now being carried on in his laboratory.

12) The large house being built in our street is a new school.

13) This company is interested in the goods produced by our factories.

14) All books taken from the library must be returned next week.

15) Squeezed by the ice the steamer could not continue her way.

16) The woman sitting in the armchair is the editor’s wife.

17) The police are looking for a stolen car.

18) The articles written by this political observer are read with great interest.

19) Being busy, Jack refused an invitation.

20) Having asked the secretary to bring the newspaper, Mr Jones returned to his office.

Test 2. Use the right form.

1)   Читая английские книги, я всегда пользуюсь словарем.

a)   reading b) having read c) being read

2)   Прочитав книгу, он отнес ее в библиотеку.

a)   reading b) having read c) having been read

3) Книга, прочитанная мною вчера, очень интересна.

a)   reading b) read c) having been read

4)   Письмо, полученное вчера

a)   having received b) received c) receiving

5)   Получая письмо

a)   having received b) received c) receiving

6)   Получив письмо

a)   having received b) received c) receiving

7)   Мальчик, получающий письмо

a)   having received b) received c) receiving

8)   Просматривая журналы

a)   looking through b) having looked through c) looked through

9)   Просмотрев журналы

a)   looking through b) having looked through c) looked through

10) Журнал, просмотренный вчера

a)   looking through b) having looked through c) looked through

11) Человек, просматривающий журнал

a)   looking through b) having looked through c) looked through

Test 3. From each pair of sentences make one sentence using an -ing clause.

Example: She was sitting in an armchair. She was reading a book. - She was sitting in an armchair reading a book.

1)   Jill was lying on the bed. She was crying.

2)   I got home. I was feeling tired.

3)   The old man was walking along the street. He was talking to himself.

4)   Jim hurt his arm. He was playing tennis.

5)   Ann fell asleep. She was watching TV.

6)   The man slipped. He was getting off the bus.

7)   The girl cut herself. She was cooking.

8)   Jim was playing tennis. He hurt his arm.

9)   I was watching television. I fell asleep.

10) The man slipped. He was getting off a bus.

11) I was walking home in the rain. I got wet.

12) Mag was driving to work yesterday. She had an accident.

13) Two firemen were overcome by smoke. They were trying to put out the fire.

Test4. Fill in participle I or participle II.

1)  Did Bill like his birthday present? –Oh, yes. He was ……….thrilling/ thrilled with it.

2)  How’s your new job? –It’s great but it’s a bit ……….tired/ tiring.

3)  Did you enjoy the film?- No, not at all. I found it very……………confusing/ confused.

4)  How do you feel after being away from work for a month? – Wonderful! I feel really ……..relaxed/ relaxing.

5)  Was Peter late for dinner again?- Yes, and I was very ………..annoying/ annoyed because he didn’t call to tell me.

6)  Did you have a good swim? –I had a marvellous swim. It was very ……….refreshed/ refreshing.

7)  Did you meet Mr Grant? – Yes. What an …………interesting/ interested person he is!

8)  Have you heard the news? Ken crashed his car. – Yes, I heard. I’m ………amazing/ amazed that he wasn’t hurt.

9)  Did you read the book I lent you? – Yes, I found the main character very ………charming/ charmed.

10)  How are the twins? –They’re very ……………excited/ exciting about opening their gifts tomorrow morning.

11)  It was a very ……………disgusted/ disgusting sight to see so much rubbish on the beach.

12)  We were very …….surprised/ surprising by his exam results.

13)  I was …………..embarrassed/ embarrassing when I tripped in front of all those people.

14)  The book was so ………exciting/ excited that I didn’t want it to end.

15)  His speech was so ………..interested/ interesting that everyone enjoyed it.

16)  Boys have always been interested in books.......... described / describing the life of the people in the past.

17)  Flights to the moon...... described / describing by great writers of the past show that people began to dream of space travel hundreds of years ago.

18)  Which do you know better: pictures........ painted / painting by modern artists or by the artists of the 19th century?

19)  You can make a very good «art gallery» from pictures......... cutting out/ cut out from old magazines.

20)  Who is that man....... told/ telling something interesting and very funny to the children?

21)  All children remember the fairy tales........ told/ telling by their grannies.

22)  I looked at the children..... play/playing football.

23)  ..........Pass / Passing by the house I saw a light in his window.

24)  Many......... fallen / falling leaves lay on the ground.

25)  Translate the words....... written /writing on the blackboard.

26)  The........ losing /lost book was found at last.

27)  ........... Going / gone along the street, I met Mary and Ann.

28)  Read the............translated / translating sentences once more.

29)  ........ Taking /Taken the girl by the hand, she led her across the street.

30)  ........Reading / Read today’s newspaper, I found an interesting article.

31)  ........ Read/ Having read/ Reading the newspaper, I gave it to my sister.

32)  ........(Standing / Stood on the bridge he watched boats.........going/gone up and down the river.

Test5*. Fill in participle I or participle II.

1.  His performance as Hamlet was rather ………….disappointed/ disappointing.

2.  She was so …………frightening/ frightened by the film that she couldn’t sleep last night.

3.  Did you enjoy the horror film? – No. It was very ……….frightened/ frightening.

4.  Mark is always biting his nails. I know. It’s an extremely ………annoyed/ annoying.

5.  Why doesn’t John study French? –He is not ……….interested/ interesting in learning a foreign language.

6.  What did you think of that new restaurant? –It was awful. The food was ………….disgusted/ disgusting.

7.  Miss Shaw is a wonderful teacher. –Yes. She is always ………encouraged/ encouraging in her attitude towards the students.

8.  Do you like windsurfing? – Yes. I find it very ……………excited/ exciting.

9.  Vicky is good at art, isn’t she?- Yes. I was …………….impressed/ impressing by her paintings.

10.  Did you see the fireworks last night? Yes. It was an ………….amazed/ amazing display.

Test 6. Fill in participle I or participle II.

1)  Your trip to Los Angeles sounds ……………….(fascinate)

2)  I didn’t like the film because it was ………(bore)

3)  Everyone thinks Emily is an…….person. (amuse)

4)  They were …….to hear that their daughter was getting married. (thrill)

5)  I was ………to find out that Thomas had left his job. (shock)

6)  What’s the most ………..thing you’ve ever done? (embarrass)

7)  The children were so ………..by the story that they couldn’t sleep. (frighten)

8)  I have had such an …………….day that all I want to do is to go to bed. (exhaust)

9)  Malcolm finds it very …………to lie in a hammock and read the newspaper. (relax)

10)  The teacher was………by her students’ excellent exam results. (impress)

11)  I was ……………to receive you card expressing your sympathy. (touch)

12)  Although being a doctor can be a very stressful and tiring job, it is very …………..as you help save people’s lives. (reward)

13)  I have never felt as ……..as I did when I watched that horror film. (terrify)

14)  It is very ………..to see people begging for money on the streets. (depress)

15)  I don’t get ……….very easily. (embarrass)

16)  I find it quite…….to talk in front of a group of people. ( embarrass)

17)  I think reading newspapers is ………(depress)

18)  I’m ……….in all kinds of sport. (interest)

19)  I find walking in the country very……..(relax)

20)  I think learning a language is very ……….(interest)

21)  I get ………when people smoke in restaurants. (annoy)

22)  I don’t normally get …….when I watch horror films. (frighten)

Test 7. Finish the sentences without changing the meaning.

1)  We found the office party extremely boring. We were………..

2)  Everybody was fascinated by the fireworks display. Everybody found…………..

3)  His news is really surprising. You’ll be………….

4)  We found the long delay very irritating. We were………….

5)  Lots of people are confused by the way he behaves. Lots of people find…………….

6)  We were satisfied with the service at the restaurant. We found…………..

7)  Everybody was tired by the long walk. Everybody found……….

8)  We were moved by the speech he made at the wedding. We found……………….

9)  I’m surprised by the news. I find………….

10)  The man’s behaviour was shocking. We were all……………

11)  Kate is interested in travel. Kate finds………….

12)  The tennis match was boring. We were……….

13)  I felt very relaxed in the sauna. I found……….

Test 8 *. Rewrite the sentences using participles.

1)  Because she was tired, Kate went to bed.

2)  He was sitting in the garden and he was drinking his tea.

3)  After Jane had made dinner, she called the children.

4)  The boy who is standing by the door is my brother.

5)  Simon cut his hand while he was chopping some wood.

6)  Donna had a shower before she went to bed.

7)  Because we were late, we took a taxi.

8)  Gary opened the window and breathe the fresh air.

9)  She was lying on her bed and she was reading a book.

10)  The jewels which were taken by the thieves were very valuable.

11)  Amy picked up her pen and started to write the letter.

12)  The man who is walking towards us is a relative of mine.

13)  After the teacher had explained the exercise, he asked the students to do it.

14)  Because she had forgotten to take her purse, she had to borrow some money from a colleague.

Test 9. Open the brackets using participle I or participle II.

1)   .....(to smile) she entered the room.

2)   The girl.......(to write) something on the blackboard is my friend.

3)   This is a letter.......( to address) to you.

4)   I like to read stories...... (to write) by this writer.

5)   Do you know the boys.......( to play) tennis now?

6)   ........(to read) this book I wrote out many useful expressions.

7)   Nelly entered the room........(to bring) the nice big doll.

8)   Many people who came to the museum liked the pictures......(to paint) by this artist.

9)   There was a small kitten.......(to play) on the sofa.

10) While.......(to read) this book I always remember my childhood.

11) All stories.....(to write) by this writer are very funny.

12) Look at the children........( to play) in the yard.

13) The report.......(to do) by Hammer is of great importance.

14) The boy asked questions........(to look) at us.

15) Nell spoke about her brother......(to live) in London.

16) ......(to go) through the park I met my teacher.

17) He didn’t go to the cinema with us, .......(to say) that he was busy.

18) The man......(to stand) at the window is a well-known actor.

19) We were walking about the hall........(to look) at the pictures on the wall.

20) ......( to answer) the questions John made a mistake.

21) Mary found the key......(to lose) by me yesterday.

22) They fell asleep quickly,.........(to be tired) by their journey.

23) I live in a house........(to build) a hundred years ago.

24) Did you understand the rules.....(to explain) to us yesterday.

25) You must learn all the words.........(to give) by the teacher.

Test 10. Make sentences beginning Having.......

1)   We finished our work. We went home.

2)   We bought tickets. Then we went into the theatre.

3)   They had dinner. Then they continued on their journey.

4)   Sue did all her shopping. Then she went for a cup of coffee.

5)   They found a hotel. Then they looked for somewhere to have dinner.

6)   Ann finished her lessons. Then she went home.

7)   Sandy read the newspaper. Then he wrote some business letters.

8)   Mr Jones asked the secretary to bring him the newspaper. Then he returned to his office.

9)   They continued their journey after they’d had dinner.

10) After Lucy had done all her shopping, she went for a cup of coffee.

Test 11. Make sentences, using participles.

1)  I felt tired. So I went to bed early.

2)  I thought they might be hungry. So I offered them something to eat.

3)  She is a foreigner. So she needs a visa to stay in this country.

4)  I didn’t know his address. So I wasn’t able to contact him.

5)  Sarah has travelled a lot. So she knows a lot about other countries.

6)  The man wasn’t able to understand English. So he didn’t know what I wanted.

7)  We had spent nearly all our money. So we couldn’t afford to stay in a hotel.

8)  A boy was injured in the accident. He was taken to hospital.

9)  A window was broken in the storm last night. It has now been repaired.

10)  A number of suggestions were made at the meeting. Most of them were not very practical.

11)  Some paintings were stolen from the museum. They haven’t been found yet.

12)  A man was arrested by the police. What was his name?

Test 12. Choose the best participle forms to fit into the sentences.

Giving not having been given being given not giving having been given given having given

 

1)  The best part ……….to another actor, Josh felt unwilling to continue his involvement in the show.

2)  I’ve always treasured the watch ……..to me on my eighteenth birthday.

3)  The police officers stood at either end of the hallway, ………Ray no chance of escape.

4)  ……….our tickets to the attendant, we were ushered into the antechamber of the tomb.

5)  We are dividing up the grant according to need, the largest amount …….to the homeless.

6)  ………mandatory mother’s notice by the landlord, the tenant was able to stay on in the house.

Test 13. Rewrite the following sentences, replacing the underlined phrase with a suitable participle phrase.

Example: As they hadn’t been arrested they were able to leave the police station. – Not having been arrested, they were able to leave the police station.

1)  She fell asleep while she sat in the armchair.

2)  Because I can speak Finnish I was able to follow their conversation.

3)  My brother, who has split up with his wife, wants to move in with me.

4)  So far nobody has claimed the money we discovered under the floorboards.

5)  After he had moved out, Danny found it difficult to find a nice place to stay.

6)  If you leave it for too long, oil paint will form a skin.

7)  The sea was very rough, which made me feel sick.

8)  As I am not very good with figures I’ll let you do the accounts.

9)  This is a house which has been built to last forever.

10)  Provided you wash it at a cool temperature this garment will not shrink.

11)  People who play loud music late at night can be a real nuisance.

12)  Because he had been unemployed for so long, Jack despaired of ever finding a job.

13)  If you give them enough time, the engineers will be able to find the fault.

14)  The people who lived closest to the river bank were the worst affected.

15)  Due to the fact that I hadn’t registered, I was unable to vote in last week’s election.

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